T.S. Eliot is considered one of the most important literary figures of the 20th century, renowned for his poetry, literary criticism, and contributions as an editor and publisher. Born in St. Louis, Missouri in 1888, Eliot received a broad education, including time at Harvard University, the Sorbonne, and Oxford University. He began writing poetry while still a student, and his early work showed a tendency towards themes of alienation and disillusionment.
Eliot's early career as a poet can be roughly divided into three periods. The first period, while he was studying in Boston and Paris, produced several important poems, including "Portrait of a Lady," "Preludes," "Rhapsody on a Windy Night," and "The Love Song of J. Alfred Prufrock," which was published in Poetry magazine in 1915. The second period coincided with World War I and the financial and marital stress of his early years in London, and culminated in his masterpiece, The Waste Land, published in 1922. The third period was marked by Eliot's anxiety about the economic depression and the rise of Nazism, and resulted in the publication of his Four Quartets in 1943.
T.S. Eliot's third period as a poet, which culminated in the publication of Four Quartets in 1943, was marked by a sense of anxiety and uncertainty about the state of the world. This period was characterized by the economic depression of the 1930s, the rise of Nazism in Europe, and the onset of World War II. In Four Quartets, Eliot grappled with these issues, exploring themes such as time, history, and the nature of human experience. The Four Quartets is a collection of four long poems: "Burnt Norton," "East Coker," "The Dry Salvages," and "Little Gidding." Each poem is composed of several interconnected sections, and they are all characterized by a sense of philosophical inquiry and spiritual exploration. "Burnt Norton," the first poem in the collection, was inspired by a visit to the ruins of a 17th-century mansion in Gloucestershire, England. In this poem, Eliot explores the nature of time, reflecting on the past, present, and future, and the way in which they are interconnected. He writes, "Time past and time future / What might have been and what has been / Point to one end, which is always present."
In "East Coker," Eliot reflects on his own personal history, tracing his roots back to his ancestors in England. He also contemplates the cyclical nature of history, and the way in which the past is always present in the present. He writes, "In my beginning is my end. / In succession / Houses rise and fall, crumble, are extended, / Are removed, destroyed, restored, or in their place / Is an open field, or a factory, or a by-pass." "The Dry Salvages," the third poem in the collection, takes its title from a group of rocks off the coast of Cape Ann, Massachusetts. In this poem, Eliot reflects on the power of the sea and the forces of nature, and how they relate to human experience. He writes, "The sea is all about us; / The sea is the land's edge also, the granite / Into which it reaches, the beaches where it tosses / Its hints of earlier and other creation."
The final poem in the collection, "Little Gidding," is perhaps the most spiritual of the four. It takes its name from a small village in Cambridgeshire, England, where Eliot visited a church that had been destroyed during the English Civil War. In this poem, Eliot reflects on the nature of human experience, and the way in which it is shaped by time and history. He writes, "We shall not cease from exploration / And the end of all our exploring / Will be to arrive where we started / And know the place for the first time."
Overall, the Four Quartets is a deeply philosophical and introspective work that reflects Eliot's anxiety about the state of the world during the 1930s and 1940s. It explores themes such as time, history, and the nature of human experience, and it does so in a way that is both deeply personal and universal in its scope. The Four Quartets is widely regarded as one of Eliot's greatest works, and it continues to be studied and celebrated by readers and scholars alike.
Eliot's poetry is often characterized by its complexity, its use of literary allusions, and its exploration of themes such as identity, time, and the nature of human experience. However, his work has also been criticized for its use of anti-Semitic language and for espousing prejudiced views. Some critics, such as Anthony Julius, have argued that Eliot's work degrades Jewish people and culture, citing "Gerontion" and his lectures as primary sources.
Despite these criticisms, Eliot remains a major figure in literary history, and his influence can be seen in the work of many later writers. He also produced several notable works outside of poetry, including the play Murder in the Cathedral (1935) and Old Possum's Book of Practical Cats, which was famously adapted into the musical Cats in 1981.
Eliot's relationship with his mentor, Ezra Pound, was also crucial to his development as a writer. Pound was a known fascist, and both he and Eliot espoused biased and harmful views in their poetry. Pound had edited Eliot's "The Love Song of J. Alfred Prufrock" and arranged for its publication in 1915. He continued to play a central role in Eliot's life and work through the early 1920s, and influenced the form and content of Eliot's next group of poems, the quatrains in Poems (1919). More famously, he changed the shape of The Waste Land by urging Eliot to cut several long passages.
Eliot's personal life was marked by both triumphs and tragedies. He married his first wife, Vivienne Haigh-Wood, in 1915, and the marriage was thought to have influenced The Waste Land. However, Vivienne suffered from mental illness after 1933, and the two lived separately until her death in 1947. In 1957, Eliot married his secretary at Faber & Faber, Esmé Valerie Fletcher. Valerie Eliot preserved her husband's literary legacy until she passed away in 2012. Eliot's contributions as an editor and publisher were also significant. From 1922 to 1939, he edited a major journal, the Criterion, and from 1925 to 1965, he was an editor and a director in the publishing house of Faber & Faber. Several of Eliot's earliest poems were published first in association with the college literary magazine the Harvard Advocate, and at least one of his lifelong friendships, with fellow poet Conrad Aiken, was formed in this nursery of writers and poets. Through his work as an editor and publisher, Eliot played a crucial role in shaping the literary landscape of his time. He worked with many of the leading writers and poets of the day, including W.H. Auden, Ted Hughes, and Sylvia Plath, among others. In addition to his contributions to literature, Eliot was also recognized for his achievements with numerous awards and honors. He was awarded the British Order of Merit and the Nobel Prize for Literature in 1948, and his play The Cocktail Party won the 1950 Tony Award for Best Play. In 1964, he was awarded the Presidential Medal of Freedom.
The impact of Eliot's work and legacy extends far beyond his own time. His influence can be seen in the work of many later writers and poets, and his contributions to literary criticism continue to be studied and debated. However, his legacy is also complicated by his espousal of prejudiced views and his use of language that is now considered offensive. Despite these criticisms, Eliot remains a towering figure in the world of literature, and his work continues to be read and celebrated by readers and scholars alike.